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In amateur radio, QRP operation means transmitting at reduced power levels while aiming to maximize one’s effective range while doing so. The term QRP derives from the standard Q code used in radio communications, where “QRP” and “QRP?” are used to request, “Reduce power”, and ask “Should I reduce power?” respectively. The opposite of QRP is QRO, or high-power operation.
CW stands for “continuous wave” transmissions, and it dates back to the earliest days of amateur radio. Thinking of the old telegraph offices, communication was accomplished with a “straight key” and the operator, using “Morse Code” simply used the key to interrupt a continuous transmission into “dits” and “dahs”.
Not truly a digital mode, since it isn’t binary, CW is still considered to be digital by many.
Portable’ operations is usually signified by amateur radio operators appending the suffix ‘/P’ to their callsign. Operating ‘/P’ normally means that stations are operating away from their licensed station address.
The advantages of /P operation include the use of large empty spaces where full size beam and wire antennas can be erected on tall trailer mounted masts. If operating on VHF/UHF, this can mean a location on the top of a hill or cliff, with clear line of sight to the horizon.
The main disadvantage is normally the power supply available. As normal mains grid power is unavailable, the /P operator may have to resort to batteries, portable generators, solar panels and wind turbines.